Wednesday, May 8, 2019

Savarna

Savarna

Savarna and Avarna were identified as divisions of people in India. Some believe that there are four divisions of ‘four varnas’ of inequality by birth. Some believed that the term was brought by Aryans who migrated to India from Central Asia. Some believed that it was the colour of the skin (pigment) of the people as per their profession (working hours under the Sun), that was established as varna (colour) system in India. But there is one more belief, very different from above all and you may like it to know.

Sanskrit is an ancient language, described as the language of God. It’s grammar was composed by Panini in the 6th Century BC. Panini, Katyayan and Patanjali had created a grammatical platform of the language so well that today it is considered the most scientific language of the world. It is made of consonants and vowels. The base is the 14 Shiv Sutra, also called Maheshwar Sutra. 

नृतावसाने नटराजाराजो ननाद ढक्कां नवपन्चवारम्। 
उद्धर्तुकाम: सनकाद्सिद्धान् एकद्विमर्शे शिवसूत्रजालम्। 

Nataraj Shiva after completion of his Tandava (Cosmic) dance, sounded Damru 14 times and from which the 14 Shiv Sutras-Varnas created. These sounds create maintain regulate and destroy the Universe. These are:

अइउण्, ऋलृक्, एओड्, ऐऔच्, हयवरट्, लण्, ञमङणनम्, झभञ, घढधष्, जबगडदश्, खफछठथचटतव्, कपय्, शषसर्, हल। They are classified as per the places of the sound, as kanthya (अ, क, ख, ग, घ, ङ, ह, :), talu (इ, च, छ, ज, ज्ञ, ञ, य, श), murdha (ऋ, ट, ठ, ड, ढ, ण, र, ष), danta: (लृ, त, थ, द, ध, न, ल, स), oshthau (उ, प, फ, ब, भ, म), kanth-talu (ए, ऐ), kanth-austham (ओ, औ),  dant-austham (व), jihvamulam (~क, ~ख)and nasika (ञ, म, ङ, ण, न, ं).

There are three major vowels: अ, इ, उ, with three divisions हस्व, दीर्घ, प्लुत. Twinkle of an eye is one matra sounds vowel हस्व, two matra sound vowel दीर्घ and three sound प्लुत. The rooster crowing in the morning carry all these three sounds. The sound from above the palate area is called udatta, the sound from below the palate area is called anudatt and the mixture of the two is called swarit. These 3x3 makes 9 distinctions. Again there are further two divisions: nasal and non nasal sounds, makes it 18. There are 18 Varnas. 

And the Sutra is: तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम्। While making the sound of two Varnas, when the place of the sound and efforts of the speaker are equal and similar, the Varnas are called Savarna. Ex. अ, आ. 

The Sabskritised society was very disciplined in using 18 Varnas in their correct form with right pronouncing because with the change of the sound the meaning changes. स्वजन (relative) can be श्वजन (dog) if not pronounced properly. Therefore, those followed the rules of the grammar properly and pronounced the Varnas well and spoke the language rightly, might had been identified as Savarna. Those carried variations in their pronunciations of varnas were divided into 18 categories and were identified as 18 Varnas (divisions) of the Society. And those who were not part of the Sanskritised language group might had been identified as Avarnas, that had divided the society into Savarnas and Avarnas. Folk language changes at every 36 kms (12 kos). Savarna or Avarna is a distinction of grammar, the sound of communication, depends upon how you hear the Damaru of Shiva. 

If keen to learn more, pick up Ashtadhyayi and follow Panini!😊

Punamchand
8 May 2019

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