Sunday, July 22, 2018

Ahmedabad Dynasty-3

Ahmedabad Dynasty-3

The sudden end of the Sultan Bahadur Shah (age 31Y) in the water of Arabian Sea made the Sultanate weaker as he had no son to succeed. Bahadur’s nephew Miran Muhammad Shah - I of Khandesh declared himself Sultan of Gujarat but he died on his way to Ahmedabad in May 1537. Finally, his another nephew of 11 years age Mahmúd Khan was selected as the Sultan. The government was carried on by his regents Darya Khan and Imad ul Mulk. Later when the Sultan joined hands with Alam Khan Lodhi but Darya Khan defeated both and placed Muzaffar Shah as Sultan. 

But Mahmúd and Alam Khan regained strength and Darya Khan had to flee to Burhanpur. Sultan Mahmud following counsel of a bird catcher Charji (Muafiz Khan) ordered execution of his two principal nobles. The nobles besieged the Sultan and though Muafiz was under the protection of the Sultan, Alam Khan’s men killed Muafiz in the presence of the Sultan. Sultan attempted to kill himself. He then driven away Darya Khan and Alam Khan from the Sultanate. Afzal Khan was called back from retirement and was made Minister. Mahmud deprived Rajput Chiefs from the proprietorship of wantas and force Rajput and Kolis to wear red rag on right sleeve as identity mark. Persecutions over Hindus increased. The Sultan lost confidence of the people. One day, Burhan, his servant gave him intoxicating drug, stabbed in sleep and killed him in 1554. The Sultan was only 28 years old. Hindu regarded Burhan as saviour. 

The nobles then place one of the descendants Ahmed Khan/Shah on the seat. As he was a child, the regents and nobles were running the government. Later the Sultanate was divided into divisions: the Sultan was given Ahmedabad and Daskoi as Privy Purse and rest of Gujarat was divided amongst the 12 nobles. In the infightings of the nobles and their men, and before the Sultan gain independence from them, he was assassinated in 1561 and his body was thrown on the sands of Sabarmati river. His reign was for eight years only. 

He was succeeded by the last Sultan of the dynasty Muzaffar Shah-III in 1561 but the true powers were with the nobles. Akbar annexed Gujarat in 1573 and took Muzaffar Shah -III as the prisoner to Agra. It was such an important victory of getting big treasury of Gujarat that Akbar built ‘Gate way of Victory’ Buland Darwaza to commemorate his victory over Gujarat. But in 1583, he escaped from the Agra jail and regain the throne with the help of nobles but again was defeated by the General of Akbar in 1584. He fled and took asylum in Nawanagar and Kathiyawar Forces of Jadejas fought a battle with Mughals at Bhuchar Mori in 1591 to protect him. But when the Jadeja ruler of Kutch State Bharmalji-I surrendered him to Mughals, he finally committed suicide in 1592. The independent Ahmedabad dynasty started with Muzaffar Shah-I in 1407 was ended with the death of Muzaffar Shah-III in 1592.

Persian reads "Isa (Jesus), son of Mary said: 'The world is a Bridge, pass over it, but build no houses upon it. He who hopes for a day may hope for eternity, but the World endures but an hour. Spend it in prayer for the rest is unseen.'"- Inscription in Persian on the main gateway of Buland Darwaza. 

To consolidate Mughals domains in India, Emperor Jalal ud din Muhammad Akbar started a new age of Indianisation of Turk-Mughals by marriage and diplomacy and to run a Secular State paying respects to all religions. They developed centralised system of administration, built strong economy and patron arts and culture. Before British make this country India as one unified entity, Mughals seeded it’s shape.

22 July 2018

Saturday, July 21, 2018

Ahmedabad Dynasty-2 (Bahadur Shah Gujarati)

Ahmedabad Dynasty-2
(Bahadur Shah Gujarati)

The powerful Sultan of the Dynasty Mahmud Begado died at 66 years age in November 1511 and was buried at Sarkhej Roza in Ahmedabad. How big he was in body size, how brave he was and how lavishly he was eating large quantities of meal of eggs, non-veg and other foodstuffs were the talk of Ahmedabad town even after 400 years of his death. He was also known as ‘poison sultan’ as he was given mild quality of poison from childhood to immune to poisons. How important the ‘nobles’ were that when his second son Apa Khan trespassed in the harem of the nobles, he was ordered to be positioned.

Begado was succeeded by his eldest son Khalil  Khan. He ruled the kingdom for 15 years and came in conflict with Rana Sanga of Mewar when the later won Malwa. After his death in 1526, his son Sikandar Khan succeeded him but within six weeks, his slave Imad ul Mulk Khush Kadam murdered him in Champaner when he was in sleep and seated Sultán’s 6 years old younger brother Nashir Khan on the thorne and became Governor on his behalf. The ‘nobles’ didn’t accept him and another younger brother Bahadur Khan (20Y) with the help of supporters executed Khush Kadam, poisoned Nasir Khan and ascended the throne in 1527. 

The Sultanate of Ahmedabad was weakened in just one year after the death of Khalil Khan (Muzaffar Shah-II). And at Delhi front, 10000 soldiers of Babar defeated 1 lakh Army of Ibrahim Lodhi in the famous battle of Panipat. Cannons won the war against the Swords. 

Rana Sanga (Sangram Singh) of Mewar made an alliance of the force of Rajputs of Rajasthan, Muslim Rajputs of Mewat and Afghans under Sikandar Lodhi, the son of Ibrahim Lodhi and fought against Babar in the battle of Khandwa in 1527, but were defeated against the Cannons of Babar. The Indian soldiers were getting tired holding heavy swords of 2.5 kg. They looked stronger over the enemies in the first few hours of the battle but by noon they all get tired and then the enemy won them by using low weight find blade swords with a mass slaughter. 

Rana Sanga planed to renew the fight but he was poisoned and killed by his Chief in Chitor in January 1528. Had the alliance been joined by Ahmedabad Sultanate, they would have won the battle of Khandwa because Ahmedabad had stronger arms. But Muslim sultanate was away from the majority Hindu alliance.

After the defeat in battle of Khandwa and death of Rana Sanga, the seat of power of Mewar weakened. His eldest son Bhojraj (husband of Mirabai) died before his father’s death. Second son Rana Ratan Singh succeeded him but was killed. Therefore, third son Vikramaditya Singh became Rana and his mother Maharani Karnavati (grand mother of Rana Pratap) acted as regent. Their protector Raja Bagh Singh and his wife Jodha died in a war with Gujarat Sultan Bahadur Shah in 1535. Rani Karnavati (grand mother of Rana Pratap) sent a Rakhi (holy thread) to Mughal Emperor Humayun addressing him as brother and asked for the help. But he remained standby as it was a war of his Muslim enemy with Hindu King of Mewar or reciprocating the neutrality of Gujarat Sultan in Khandwa war of Rana Sanga with Babar. The war was lost and the fort Chittor was seized. To escape the shame of Muslim Harems, Maharani Karnavati with other women performed Jauhar in front of Trimurti Shiv Temple in the fort on 8 March1535. 

Humayun succeeded his father Babar to the throne of Delhi in 1531 at the age 23Y, but he was inexperienced ruler. Therefore, to the West of Sultanate, his half brother Kamal Mirza took commands over Kabul and Lahore. He was fighting with his two big rivals Sher Shah Suri in the East and Bahadur Shah of Gujarat in the Southwest. At eastern coastal border Bahadur Shah was facing conflicts with Portuguese, and by winning Chittor, he created strong enemy Humayun. 

The letter of Karnavati gave Humayun extra strength to concentrate on the Southwest enemy Bahadur Shah. He was eying over the arms and cannons of Gujarat. Shortly after the jauhar, Humayun Army cut the food supply of victorious Gujarat Army. Rumi Khan a Russian converted to Islam faith was a brave body guard of Bahadur Shah. Bahadur was feeling safe and secure under his guard. But Rumi Khan betrayed him and moved to Humáyún side. Bahadur Shah fled and his army was dispersed. Bahadur Shah fled from Mandsore to Mandu, then Champaner to Ahmedabad, then Cambay (Khambhat) and finally at Diu under Portuguese. Entire belt Malwa and Gujarat (equal to the Delhi Sultanate of Mughals) fell into the hands of Humayun like a ripe mango. Booty of Chittor was the cherry in the cake of Malwa and Gujarat. Humayun annexed Gujarat, Champaner, Malwa and Mandu, but from the east, Farid Khan/Sher Shah Suri (Bihari Afghan) moved to wrest control over Agra, Humayun had to leave Gujarat and marched towards Agra. Bahadur Shah regain the control over Gujarat in 1536. Bassein was given to Portuguese in 1534 and he gave them Daman, Diu, Mumbai and Vasai to buy their support by signing a treaty. But in February 1537 while Bahadur shah was visiting them on a Portuguese ship anchored off the coast of Gujarat, he was killed by the Portuguese and his body was thrown in Arabian Sea. The Viceroy had some information of his kidnapping plan by the Sultan. 

21 July 2018

Thursday, July 19, 2018

Ahmedabad Dynasty- 1

Ahmedabad Dynasty-1

Sadharan was his name. He was a Tanka Rajput, changed his faith, converted to Islam and was in service to the Sultan Firozshah Tughluq of Delhi Sultanate. His sister was married to the Sultan Firoz Shah and successor Sultan, Mahmud Shah Tughluq made his son Zafar Khan, the Governor of Gujarat in 1391. When Timur Lang (lame) invaded India in 1398, and made the authority of Delhi Sultanate weaker, Zafar Khan used the opportunity and formally established independent Sultanate of Gujarat at Patan (Anhilwad)in 1407. He then held the new name Muzaffar Shah-I. The ‘Khan’ became ‘Shah’ of Gujarat. His grandson Ahmad Shah founded Ahmedabad in 1411. When he was camping on the bank of river Sabarmati, he saw a hare chasing a ferocious dog. He realised the strength of the water and soil and decided to establish a Capital. The chief of Asawal village Asa Bhil was defeated and the foundation stone of the city was laid on 26 February 1411 at Manek Burj. It was named Ahmedabad to honour four Ahmads: the Sultan, himself, his religious teacher Shaikh Ahmad Khattu Ganj Baksh, and two others, Kazi Ahmad and Malik Ahmad. Jama Masjid of Ahmedabad was built during his tenure. 

Ahmad Shah consolidated the sultanate and was famous for his noble acts but his grandson Mahmud Begado  was the most powerful Sultan of this Muzaffar/Ahmedabad Dynasty. He was seated on the throne at 13 years age and held it for 54 years, captured Pavagadh and Junagadh, and had created fear over Malava and Chittor. Champaner was under the capture of Khichi Chauhan Rajputs. It was founded by Vanraj Chavda and was named after his friend and General Champaraj. Muhammad Begado won Champaner by a trick, did the same to Raval King what Ghori did to Prithviraj. When the soldiers were busy in early morning activities of attending natural call, bathing and dressing, he attacked, captured them and killed them. 

Whenever, there was attack from Sultan of Ahmedabad, Malava used to protect Champaner. To win Malava or keep Gujarat safe from eastern attacks, it was important to hold command over Champaner. Begado won it in November 1482. It then took 23 years to build it into a new capital city and was named Muhammadabad. At the last years of his rule, Portuguese were gaining strength over Arabian Sea. They won the Battle of Diu against the joint fleet of Gujarat, Calicut and others in 1509. It was the starting point of European Colonisation in Asia. 

Many of the buildings of archeological importance of Ahmedabad and Champaner were built during Begada’s rule of 54 years. As the stone masons were Hindus, and were mainly building Jain temples, and the Muslim buildings allowed them to carves tree, leaves, creepers, etc, therefore the buildings of that time carried blend of Indo-Islamic architecture. One may surprise to see elegant interior, motifs of the Sun, diamonds, pots and vines, lotus insignia, fractal carving/Kalpa Vriksha (Holy Tree of Hindus), hanging bells, hangings made of leaves of ashoka tree, Swastik, etc, carved beautifully into the sand stones in Jami/Jama Masjid at Champaner. The Archeological Park is a UNESCO World heritage site. 

19 July 2018

Sunday, July 8, 2018

How generous people are!

How generous people are!

Yesterday morning, I met a Plastic Surgeon, Dr Hemant Saraiya at GCRI Ahmedabad. He made a piece of tongue of a cancer patient which was removed in operation. He made it by using the skin of patient’s wrist area. Cutting the affected part of the tongue and making it with plastic surgery is a long operative procedure of 6 hours and may cost ₹5 lakh in market is free of cost for the poor patients in GCRI. The remuneration to the visiting surgeon is not much but Dr. Hemant is doing with a motive to paying back to the society. He is the only Plastic Surgeon of the world who has donated Blood for 151 times.

Afternoon, we had an opportunity to visit a kidney transplant surgery. A healthy young man was donating his one kidney to his cousin of 44 years old whose both kidneys were in failure. Removing a kidney of a healthy person from the side of his body is an art of surgery. Dr. Jamal took utmost care to minimise the cuts to the donor. With two small size cut the laparoscopes were inserted and by fixing clips over the ureters, artery and vein and after cutting them disconnected the 11 centimetre bean shaped kidney from the body. And just applying seven centimetre cut over body for the entry of the surgeon’s hand the kidney was softly taken out and put in the bowl full with ice.

The nurse then immediately moved with the bowl to the adjoining OT where the donor’s cousin was kept ready to receive it. The recipient patient was kept in readiness with a cut over the lower right abdomen. Before transplantation of the donation, they do a procedure over the kidney, draining out the blood (with RBC and WBC), sealing the extra openings and keeping the right length of ureter, artery and vein. It took 10 minutes to Dr Jamal and Dr Sajani to complete the task, then they started the fixing, connecting artery with artery, vein with vein and ureter connecting to the bladder rout. The non functioning and shrunken kidneys of the patient were not disturbed. God has made our body as such a wonderful machine that it will pump more blood to the new kidney and use it for the filtration function. Kidney of a healthy man filters 110-125 ml blood a minute. The new organ will start with small count and may function at 50-60 ml/minute. The donor’s filtration with remaining one kidney will go down to 50 ml/minute, but will slowly rise to 80 ml/minute.

Management of the human auto immune system is a great challenge in kidney transplant. If the patient’s immune system rejects the donation, the entire exercise goes waste. Therefore, they do some tests and perform checks and do the match making before the surgeries. To make the auto immune system of the recipient dormant, little quantity of blood of the donor is injected to the recipient. The immune system then fight and with repeated experiments, it accept it as a permanent visitor of the body. Therefore, when the kidney of the donor is transplanted over the recipient, it remains dormant. WBC is the biggest challenge in transplantation. If the donor’s kidney carry WBC with it, it will be a tarter fight like India and Pakistan and the kidney will die in the immune attack of the recipient. Most of the WBC are removed during the drainage process, but for the residuals, the medicines takes care creating resistance wall against the attack of the immune system. There are methods to make corrections in case of adverse match making, therefore, the kidney chains are traveling beyond the near relatives.

HLA typing is very important for match making of patient and donor. It is the 6th chromosome which encode Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) in human. HLA are proteins or markers found on most cells in our body. Our immune system uses these markers (HLA) to recognize which cells belong in our body and which do not. The immune system come in attack when the foreigner enters. To avoid failure of transplantation, it is necessary to make immune system dormant. This was the research work of Dr H L Trivedi. This is not done routinely. In routine transplant, serum and white blood cells of recipients and donor respectively are cross match in the laboratory. This is known as leukocyte cross-match. If there is no reaction, the donor organ is suitable for transplant in to the recipient.

Now the transplantation is done through Robots. It is a fine surgery with minimal cut and better perfection but expensive. Very few hospitals in the world do this. IKDRC Ahmedabad has this facility. Dr. Pranjal Modi is the surgeon for Robotic surgery. IKDRC is a well known centre in the Country has reached to the present height under the great leadership of Dr HL Trivedi, MD. He has been awarded with Padma Shri. This week, the 27th International Congress of the Transplantation Society in Madrid, Spain has awarded him with ITS Award for Mentorship or Education and Training in Transplantation. This award is considered Nobel Prize in the field of Transplantation Surgeries. Salutes to Dr HL Trivedi.

I wonder, why don’t we match the 6th Chromosome of the couple before marriage to avoid fightings at home. 😂 However, in India Wife (Savitri) is the first donor to her Husband (Satyavan) to save his life. Therefore, there are many cases of wives donating kidney to husbands but rare cases of husbands donating kidney to wives.

8 July 2018

Friday, July 6, 2018



Shiv means good-blissful and Ambu means water. It is a water that can cure many diseases. Water is one of the important elements of the basic five. There are chapters in Ayurveda on Mutra Chikitsa. 

Do you know, the present generation preferring RO water is suffering from B-12 deficiencies? It was not the case in past, when people used to drink raw water fetched from the wells, ponds, river, etc, they were not deficient in Vit-B-12. Why? Because animal urine is the major source of Vit B-12. Animals urinate all around, get into water and become our drink😊 It is the uria, the food for the plants. It is antiseptic. When the iodine and tetanus were not there, people were using urine as antiseptic guard in case of small injuries. 

Nothing is useless in this world. Waste of one is the wealth of others. If the chemicals can cure diseases, why can’t the biochemicals? 

What is milk? White water/blood carry nutrients. What is meat? Dead cells of animal body but have nutrients. Similarly, urine is a water with some chemicals that is useful in curing some diseases. If radiation and chemotherapy can work on human bodies why can’t the urine? 

In Naturopathy, many have tried this chikitsa and many have been cured. It is a matter of faith too. Khushwant Singh could live for 98 years with single or double malt drinks and Morarji Desai could live for 99 years with Shivambu. It is the choice of individual. 😂 Lol. 

6 July 2018
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