Saturday, July 21, 2018

Ahmedabad Dynasty-2 (Bahadur Shah Gujarati)

Ahmedabad Dynasty-2
(Bahadur Shah Gujarati)

The powerful Sultan of the Dynasty Mahmud Begado died at 66 years age in November 1511 and was buried at Sarkhej Roza in Ahmedabad. How big he was in body size, how brave he was and how lavishly he was eating large quantities of meal of eggs, non-veg and other foodstuffs were the talk of Ahmedabad town even after 400 years of his death. He was also known as ‘poison sultan’ as he was given mild quality of poison from childhood to immune to poisons. How important the ‘nobles’ were that when his second son Apa Khan trespassed in the harem of the nobles, he was ordered to be positioned.

Begado was succeeded by his eldest son Khalil  Khan. He ruled the kingdom for 15 years and came in conflict with Rana Sanga of Mewar when the later won Malwa. After his death in 1526, his son Sikandar Khan succeeded him but within six weeks, his slave Imad ul Mulk Khush Kadam murdered him in Champaner when he was in sleep and seated Sultán’s 6 years old younger brother Nashir Khan on the thorne and became Governor on his behalf. The ‘nobles’ didn’t accept him and another younger brother Bahadur Khan (20Y) with the help of supporters executed Khush Kadam, poisoned Nasir Khan and ascended the throne in 1527. 

The Sultanate of Ahmedabad was weakened in just one year after the death of Khalil Khan (Muzaffar Shah-II). And at Delhi front, 10000 soldiers of Babar defeated 1 lakh Army of Ibrahim Lodhi in the famous battle of Panipat. Cannons won the war against the Swords. 

Rana Sanga (Sangram Singh) of Mewar made an alliance of the force of Rajputs of Rajasthan, Muslim Rajputs of Mewat and Afghans under Sikandar Lodhi, the son of Ibrahim Lodhi and fought against Babar in the battle of Khandwa in 1527, but were defeated against the Cannons of Babar. The Indian soldiers were getting tired holding heavy swords of 2.5 kg. They looked stronger over the enemies in the first few hours of the battle but by noon they all get tired and then the enemy won them by using low weight find blade swords with a mass slaughter. 

Rana Sanga planed to renew the fight but he was poisoned and killed by his Chief in Chitor in January 1528. Had the alliance been joined by Ahmedabad Sultanate, they would have won the battle of Khandwa because Ahmedabad had stronger arms. But Muslim sultanate was away from the majority Hindu alliance.

After the defeat in battle of Khandwa and death of Rana Sanga, the seat of power of Mewar weakened. His eldest son Bhojraj (husband of Mirabai) died before his father’s death. Second son Rana Ratan Singh succeeded him but was killed. Therefore, third son Vikramaditya Singh became Rana and his mother Maharani Karnavati (grand mother of Rana Pratap) acted as regent. Their protector Raja Bagh Singh and his wife Jodha died in a war with Gujarat Sultan Bahadur Shah in 1535. Rani Karnavati (grand mother of Rana Pratap) sent a Rakhi (holy thread) to Mughal Emperor Humayun addressing him as brother and asked for the help. But he remained standby as it was a war of his Muslim enemy with Hindu King of Mewar or reciprocating the neutrality of Gujarat Sultan in Khandwa war of Rana Sanga with Babar. The war was lost and the fort Chittor was seized. To escape the shame of Muslim Harems, Maharani Karnavati with other women performed Jauhar in front of Trimurti Shiv Temple in the fort on 8 March1535. 

Humayun succeeded his father Babar to the throne of Delhi in 1531 at the age 23Y, but he was inexperienced ruler. Therefore, to the West of Sultanate, his half brother Kamal Mirza took commands over Kabul and Lahore. He was fighting with his two big rivals Sher Shah Suri in the East and Bahadur Shah of Gujarat in the Southwest. At eastern coastal border Bahadur Shah was facing conflicts with Portuguese, and by winning Chittor, he created strong enemy Humayun. 

The letter of Karnavati gave Humayun extra strength to concentrate on the Southwest enemy Bahadur Shah. He was eying over the arms and cannons of Gujarat. Shortly after the jauhar, Humayun Army cut the food supply of victorious Gujarat Army. Rumi Khan a Russian converted to Islam faith was a brave body guard of Bahadur Shah. Bahadur was feeling safe and secure under his guard. But Rumi Khan betrayed him and moved to Humáyún side. Bahadur Shah fled and his army was dispersed. Bahadur Shah fled from Mandsore to Mandu, then Champaner to Ahmedabad, then Cambay (Khambhat) and finally at Diu under Portuguese. Entire belt Malwa and Gujarat (equal to the Delhi Sultanate of Mughals) fell into the hands of Humayun like a ripe mango. Booty of Chittor was the cherry in the cake of Malwa and Gujarat. Humayun annexed Gujarat, Champaner, Malwa and Mandu, but from the east, Farid Khan/Sher Shah Suri (Bihari Afghan) moved to wrest control over Agra, Humayun had to leave Gujarat and marched towards Agra. Bahadur Shah regain the control over Gujarat in 1536. Bassein was given to Portuguese in 1534 and he gave them Daman, Diu, Mumbai and Vasai to buy their support by signing a treaty. But in February 1537 while Bahadur shah was visiting them on a Portuguese ship anchored off the coast of Gujarat, he was killed by the Portuguese and his body was thrown in Arabian Sea. The Viceroy had some information of his kidnapping plan by the Sultan. 

21 July 2018

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