Friday, August 25, 2017

Four Firkas of Jains and Paryushana

Four Firkas of Jains and Paryushana

Jainism Dharma is divided into four Firkas (sects): Digambar, Swetambar, and within Swetambar: Sthanakvasi (no idol worship) and Deravasi (worship idols). The Sthanakvasi are further divided into two: sthanakvasi and tera panthi. Digambars are also idol worshippers, the eyes of the idols are closed. The eyes of the idols are open in Sthanakvasi Derasars. The male saints are called Sadhu in all the sects but the female saints are called Mataji in Digambars and Mahasatiji in Swetambars. Digambar sadhu live nude but Mataji wear cloths. 

Digambars are 10 lakshana (virtues) and Swetambar are 8 lakshana (virtues). Therefore, their Paryushan Parva is for 10 days and 8 days respectively. Paryshana of Deravasi starts on 12th day of Savan Krishna pakeha and ends on 4th day of Bhadrapad Shukla. It starts on 13th day of Savan Krishna and ends on Bhadrapad Shukla Panchami for the Sthanakvasi. For Digambars, it starts on Bhadrapad Shukla Panchami and ends on Bhadrapad Purnima after 10 days.

Paryushana means abiding and coming together, ends with Kshamavani (forgiveness), greeting with michchami dukkadam to each other. They do fast, perform prayer and follow Five vows (mahavratas): Ahimsa (non violence), Satya (truth), Asteya (non stealing), Brahamcharya (chastity), Aparigraha (non possession). There are further seven minor vows the households to follow. The Parva is for self purification and spiritual upliftment.

8 days Paryshana parva is linked with 8 Karmas: 4 ghati karmas and 4 aghati karmas. The four Ghati karmas are: Jnanavarniya (Knowledge obscuring), Darshanavarniya (Perception obscuring), Antaräy (Obstructing), Mohniya (Deluding, attachment-hatred). The four Aghati karmas are: Name (body determining), Gotra (status determining), Ayushya (age determining) Vedniya (feeling producing).
The ten virtues of Digambars are: Kshama (Forgiveness), Mardava (Tenderness or Humility), Aarjava (Straight-forwardness or Honesty), Shsucha (Contentment or Purity), Satya (Truthfulness), Sanyam (Self-restraint), Tapa (Penance or Austerities), Tyaga (Renunciation), Akinchanya (Non-attachment), Brahmacharya (Chastity or celibacy).
There are sub detailing of each karmas. And all the karmas fall in these eight categories. One may attain Kaivalya by removing four layers of four ghati karmas over the Atma. And can get Moksha (salvation) after further removing the four aghati karmas. 

The base of the Jain Dharma is of self introspection and to remove the layers of dirts, ignorance and karmas over the Atma. It doesn't allow to harm others or to obstruct others joy. It is the acceptance of present life without complaints. It is a path for the followers, how not to build new nodes of karma and to attain Kaivalya before death of the body and Moksha after the death. However, many rituals edge over the knowledge, deviating them from the main goal of salvation.

Happy Paryushana and Michchhami Dukkadam to all. 

25 August 2017

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