Sunday, April 12, 2020

Peace comes through Treaty

Peace comes through Treaty

Mughals became very powerful under Emperor Akbar. But Mewar was a challenge for them. Babur did defeat Rana Sanga, but Mewar was not fully won. Akbar conquered Gujarat in 1573, built Buland Darwaja in Fatehpur Sikri in celebration of the victory, but for a stable route to Gujarat from Delhi, Mewar was important to bring under Mughal rule. He tried to make Maharana Pratap the Vasal of Mughal but Pratap didn’t submit. Akbar was using diplomatic means of marriage and awarding ranks to the princely states to acquire authority. He offered the rank of 5000 zat and 5000 sawar to Maharana Pratap but the Amer Prince Mansingh was holding the rank of 7000 zat and 7000 sawar, may be, therefore, Maharana Pratap didn’t accept the offer. He preferred independence to power. 7000 zat and 7000 sawar was one of the highest ranks of Mughal Empire awarded to the family members of the Emperor. Akbar did acquire control over Rajputana and celebrated the victory by laying foundation of new capital Fatehpur Sikri (city of victory) in 1569, but to win Mewar the battle was inevitable.

When Akbar was eying over Bengal, his general and nephew of Empress Jodhabai, Amer Prince Maharaja Mansingh I, headed Mughal forces and defeated Maharana Pratap in the battle of Haldighati in June 1576. After a brave and fierce fight of six hours, injured Maharana escaped to the hills.

It is to note at this junction of the history that, Emperor Akbar was forced to attend rebellion of Bengal (afghan), Bihar (khans), incursion in Punjab (his brother Hakim Mirza) and threat of Khanate of Bukhara King Uzbek Abdulla Khan Shaybanid over Kabul and Mughal Empire. Akbar seized Kabul in 1581 and physically moved to Lahore in 1585, made it capital and remained there for 13 years and returned to Agra after the death of Abdullah Khan in 1598. Therefore, Mughal pressure over Mewar was relaxed and in that space Maharana Pratap recovered western Mewar. He died of injuries sustained in hunting in 1597, aged 56. He became the symbol of Rajput valour and self sacrifice for principles for centuries.

His eldest son Amar Singh became the king of Mewar in 1597. Jahangir after his coronation in 1606, started attacks over Mewar. Losing men and finance while fighting battles, Maharana Amarsingh  surrendered to Mughal in 1615 by signing treaty with Shah Jahan (for Emperor Jahangir), accepting the Mughal rank of 5000 zat and 5000 sawar. He was exempted from personal presence to the Mughal court and allowed to not to enter into matrimonial relation with Mughal.

Finally, the treaty brought peace in Mewar.

8 December 2019


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