Thursday, September 1, 2022

Costliest groin of Farruksiyar

 The costliest groin (area of hip between stomach and thigh) of an emperor 

Shah Jahan wished that his eldest son Dara Shikoh to succeed him but Aurangzeb killed Dara and became the emperor. He ruled for around 50 years and wished that his son from Persian wife Azam Shah succeeds him but he was killed by his elder half brother Shah Alam, and crowned himself as Bahadur Shah I in 1707. After his death in 1712 his son Jahandar became the emperor after killing his brother Azim ush Shan in succession war. He was killed by his nephew Farruksiyar the son of Azim ush Shan and became emperor in 1713. 

Ajit Singh Rathore was the ruler of Marwar was Mughal Governor of Gujarat. He was transferred to Thatta (Sind) by Farrukhsiyar. Ajit Singh refused the order and revolted but later surrendered and gave his daughter Indira Kanwar as a bride to the Mughal Emperor in 1714.

The Mughal Emperor Farruksiyar was suffering from a painful groin therefore his marriage with Indira was delayed. A delegation of English East India Company from Calcutta came to meet the emperor in August 1715. It had one Scottish Surgeon William Hamilton as a member. He treated the groin of the emperor and relieved him from the pain. Again in October, the emperor suffered similar problem near anus which was also treated by the surgeon. As a result, he could marry Indira Kanwar in December 1715. The Mughal Emperor was so happy with the treatment and wedding that he generously rewarded Hamilton with an elephant, a horse, five thousand rupees in money, two diamond rings, a jewelled aigrette, a set of gold buttons, and models of all his instruments in gold. But the most important gift received was by the English East India Company in 1717, the right to carry duty free trade in Bengal. Rights to import export without paying tax. They were given rights to issue passes and dastaks for the free movement of their goods, right to purchase 38 villages surrounding Calcutta and fortification of Calcutta settlements. 

1719 was a very bad year for Mughals. Ajit Singh made an alliance with Sayyid Brothers and besieged Red Fort entered into the palace, caught Farrukhsiyar from the harem, tortured and blinded him with needle and chose one of the princes Rafi Ud Darjat as the new emperor in February 1719. But within three months he was murdered or died of tuberculosis in June 1719. He was succeeded by his brother Rafi ud daula as Shah Jahan II but he also died of tuberculosis in September 1719. His successor Jahangir II could stay on the throne for only 28 days. Finally Muhammad Shah, the son of the fourth son of Bahadur Shah I became the emperor. He became famous as Muhammad Shah Rangila. He was emperor for 29 years (1719-1748). During his rule Nadir Shah plundered Delhi and looted all the wealth of Mughals including Kohinoor and Peacock Throne. Ahmad Shah Abdali started his attacks and plundered north India that has further weaken the Mughal authority. 

King Ajit Singh of Marwar continued his operations of damaging the Mughal establishment but at last he was assassinated by his own sons Abhay Singh and Bhakt Singh in 1724 to save the kingdom of Marwar from Mughal invasions. 

Shah Jahan drained royal treasury in building monuments, Aurangzeb’s Deccan campaign became a financial disaster, the succession wars of later Mughals further ruined the resources, provincial governors became independent but disunited, Nadir Shah took away 200 years treasure built by great Mughals, Ahmad Shah Abdali plundered north India. The collapse of the empire was inevitable. 

But with the Farman of duty free trade granted by Mughal Emperor Farrukhsiyar the EEIC made enormous profit therefore began to interfere in local politics of Indian ruler by bribing the weak links. Their active involvement and victory in battle of Plassey and Buxar made the foundation of establishing British rule in Bengal in middle of 18th century and later with slice by slice victories over Marathas, Nizam of Hyderabad, Tipu of Mysore, Sikh of Punjab, and sacking of Nawab of Oudh they spread into whole of India and ruled it for 200 years. 

In 1615, an English doctor treated the fever of Noor Jehan and got the trading permission from Emperor Jahangir. In 1715, a Scottish Surgeon treated groin of Farruksiyar and got the permission of duty free trade. By 1815, India was largely under the command of the British. Fever to Noor Jehan was costlier but that groin of Farruksiyar was the costliest. 


31 August 2022


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