Sunday, May 13, 2018

Secrets of Hinduism (Mundakopanishad)

Secrets of Hinduism (Mundakopanishad)

Saunaka asked Sage Angiras, कस्मिन्नु भगवो विज्ञाते सर्वमिदं विज्ञातं भवतीति? (1.3 Mundakopanishad) “What is that, through the knowledge of which everything becomes known?”

The Sage explained that two kinds of vidhyas (knowledge), Para (higher) and Apara (lower) are  to be known. Higher knowledge of Brahman and lower knowledge of empirical world. 

Vedas (wisdom), the oldest sacred text of Hindus are considered apauruseya (not of a man) and called Sruti (what is heard). But verse 5 of the Mundakopanishad place all four Vedas the Rig Veda, the Yajur Veda, the Sama Veda, the Atharva Veda and the Shadanga: Siksha (phonetics), Kalpa (rituals) Vyakaran (grammar), Nirukta (etymology, vedic dictionary), Chhanda (prosody) and Jyotish (astrology), into lower (apara) category of incomplete knowledge. 

In one stroke, it has placed all the major shastras of Hinduism out of the higher category of attaining the knowledge of the Supreme being, the Brahman. Karmakands (rituals), prayers, pilgrimage, outer worship, etc, may be useful to prepare the runway, but are not the means to know the Supreme, the Akshar Brahman. 

Karmas of Dharma, Adharma, Punya-Paap, etc, often leads to bondage of this world but not liberation. However, by good karmas impurities of mind can be purified. Aberration can be removed by Bhakti. Yagya, Daan, Tapa, Bhakti, purify the inner cause (mind, intellect, memory, ego) and generate curiosity to know the Brahman. They prepare the base to acquire Para. 

What is Para vidhya? 

‘सा विद्या या विमुक्तये'। (knowledge is that one liberates) That is knowledge (real) which leads to liberation (emancipation from the cycle of birth and rebirth).  

Karna was Kauntaiya but he believed himself Radheya. Had he accepted that he was Kauntaiya, the war of Mahabharata would had been avoided. Similarly, Brahman is our identity, but our belief of being a Jeeva has put us in the sufferings and in the cycle of birth and rebirth. Para gives the knowledge of the Parmatma and Peace (शांति) is the outcome. It frees the individual from all karmas and their bondage.

Parmatma (God) can’t be described by words or can’t be attained through human senses. Therefore, Upanishads use adjectives, to guide the path of liberation.

यत्तदद्रेश्यमग्राह्यमगोत्रमवर्णचक्षु:श्रोत्रं तदपाणिपीदम्। नित्यं विभूं सर्वगतं सुसूक्ष्मं तदव्ययं यद्भूतयोनिं परिपश्यन्ति धीरा: | (1.6 Mundakopanishad)

THAT (Parmatma/God) is
Adrashya (inperceptible), not a subject of sense organs; Agrahya (ungraspable), not a subject of organs of action; Agotra (without origin/root/lineage), not created by someone;  Avarna (colourless), not have special Varna/matter; Achakchustrotam (eyeless and earless), not have sense organs; Apanipadat (without organs of actions); Nityam (eternal); Vibhu (all pervading), manifests through different forms, the universes and creatures; Sarvagatam (omnipresent); Susukshamtam (very subtle), beyond the reach of human intellect; Avyayam (imperishable); and the source of all beings (generate, stay and destroyed in HIM). HE is beheld by men of wisdom (धीरा:)

There are five basic elements of nature: ether, air, fire, water, earth. Each one has quality/tanmatra. Ether/Space has sound (ॐ); Air has sound and touch; Fire has sound, touch and sight; Water has sound, touch, sight and taste; Earth has sound, touch, sight, taste and smell. With the increase of qualities/gunas, the element gets more dense, and occupy less space. Water occupies more space than earth, fire occupies more space than water...and so on. More the subtle, it spreads more. Parmatma is susukshmatam, the sixth range, without any guna/quality, very subtle than the ether (beyond imagination), therefore, ubiquitous, omnipresent. 

The Vidhya with which one knows Akshara (God) is Para, and the rest are the Apara. Those who have Brahmajigyasa, (अथातो ब्रह्म जिज्ञासा) can start with. And those are Dhira (man of wisdom with stable mind) can behold HIM and liberate from the bondage. Dhira is Adhikari, who has Viveka, Vairagya, Shadsampati (six virtues: shama, dama, uparati, titiksha, shraddha, samadhan) and Mumukshuta. He can see the Parmatma everywhere, present through HIS creation. He can behold the Brahmagyan of the Akshar (न क्षरति इति अक्षर) Brahman. 

Mundakopanishad is talking about the Mund, means the Brain, directs the thought process and light the path to attain Akshar Brahma following the path of Para Vidhya, the knowledge that destroys ignorance or the means of attuning oneself with the true Existence. Our national logo of सत्यमेव जयते। was taken from Mundakopanishada. 

13 May 2018


  1. This comment has been removed by the author.

  2. Collective humanity may lead to perceive Param Brahma sir.


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