Monday, January 2, 2023

When a history took U turn

 When history of India took U turn. 

Elections for Provincial Governments in 11 provinces of British India were held in 1936-37 under GOI Act 1935. It was conducted with limited franchise available to 1/6 of the adults who were land owners, tax payers, etc. Only small number of women had voting rights. There were 1585 seats which includes 482 Muslim reserve seats. 

Congress won 707 of 1161 contested seats. It contested only 58 of 482 Muslim reserved seats and won 26. Muslim League won 106 seats (22%) of 482 reserved seats for Muslims and didn’t form Govt in any of the provinces. 70% of Muslim reserves seats were won by Muslim Regional parties. Regional parties in total won 397 seats (25%) and independents won 385 seats (24%) of the 1585 seats. Congress won 45% of the total seats and won clear majority in 5 provinces and formed/joined Govt in 7 of the 11 provinces. Muslim league didn’t form Govt in any of the provinces.

Congress formed Govts in United Province, Central Province, Bihar, Orissa, Bombay and Madras. Muslim League wanted to become coalition partner in UP but Congress denied the request as it had majority. However, Congress didn’t win a single seat from the 64 reserved for Muslims. ML won 29 of 64.

In Sind province of 60 members, Sind United Party was the single largest party formed the Govt with the support of Congress. Muslim League didn’t won a single seat from the 34 seats reserved. 

In Assam, Assam Valley Muslim Party the second largest party formed the Govt with the support of Congress which was the single largest party (33/108). 

In Punjab, Unionist Party formed a coalition Govt with the support of Khalsa National Board and Hindu Education Board. 

In Bengal, Krishak Praja Party the second largest formed the Govt with the support of Muslim League. Congress couldn’t form the Govt though it was the single largest party. Later when Muslim League withdrew its support to the KPP, Congress and Hindu Mahasabha joined the coalition Govt with the KPP. 

The facts above make it clear that in 1937, Muslim India was neither with the Congress though it was claiming to be a representative of all communities; nor with the Muslim League (fully) as the Regional Muslim Parties didn’t allow the Muslim League to acquire majority and form the Govt.

With the start of WW-II on 1st September 1939 and Viceroy Linlithgow declaring India at war on 3rd September 1939, the political spectrum of India took a U turn. Congress which was demanding formation of National Govt after forming the Provincial Govts was found in helplessness condition as the Viceroy declared emergency and took over powers of the Provincial Govts. Congress in protest of declaration of war without prior consultation with Indians demanded formation of National Govt and freedom after war while Muslim League promised honourable cooperation to the British. The Viceroy didn’t accept demands of Congress and therefore they all resigned from the 8 Provincial Govt on 22nd October 1939. Congress was out and Jinnah was in in the core circle of the British. Jinnah and Muslim League celebrated 22 December 1939 (Friday) as Day of Deliverance from Congress. He didn’t listen to the appeal of Gandhi on Congress-League unity. The celebration of Muslim League was supported by Dr BR Ambedkar, EV Ramswami (Justice Party, Madras), Labour Party, Parsis and Anglo-Indians. Jinnah and Ambedkar jointly addressed the heavily attended Day of Deliverance event in Bhindi Bazaar, Bombay. 

Jinnah who went closer to the British took a decisive move and passed Pakistan Resolution in Lahore Session of AIML on 23rd March 1940. 

1940-47 was a turmoil period of Indian history in which the period of 6 months (207 days from 16 May 1946 to 9 December 1946) were not handled with care by the Leaders of both the National Parties, dragged India into painful partition. Initially, it looked like a big blow on the heart of India because it had not only lost its area and population but humans in thousands were killed and millions were displaced in that communal fire. Over the years, the partition has been proved blessings to the majority community of India as the Muslim population (25%) of United India got divided into three parts, lost reservation of seats from mainland India and that way lost the political strength of influencing decisions of the Govts over mainland India. However, they had gained independence over 22% (9.45 lakh km2 of 42.32 lakh km2) of the land of India to form Pakistan and Bangladesh, predominantly the Muslim majority provinces. India today is one of the power centres of the world of 21st century. 

Lahore Session of Congress passed ‘Complete Independence’ resolution on 19 December 1929 and made public declaration on 26 January 1930 to celebrate it as Independence Day. Lahore Session of AILM passed Pakistan Resolution on 23rd March 1940. Therefore, India adopted its Constitution on 26th January 1950 and Pakistan adopted its Constitution on 23rd March 1956. 

Friday dominated the India history in the second quarter of the 20th century. 

1) 22 December 1939, Day of Deliverance (Friday) 

2) 22 March 1940, resolution of Pakistan was moved (Friday)

3) 16 August 1946, Direct Action Day (divided or destroyed India) (Friday)

4) 15 August 1947, Independence of India with Partition, (Friday)

5) 30 January 1948, Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi (Friday)


27 December 2022


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