Wednesday, August 27, 2014

what happened to those who demanded partition of India

What happened to those who demanded Partition of India?

British, few in numbers, ruled over Hindustan with "Divide and Rule" policy. Congress lead the freedom struggle demanding from Dominion Status to "Quit India", the complete freedom.

Jinnah (Muslim League) took a stand of "Divide and Quit".

Finally what happened ? On the eve of the sunset of British Empire, 0.5 to 1 million people were massacred, 1.5 million people were uprooted and compelled to migrate. Their migration during monsoon and floods, initial days hardships of life living in relief camps, settlement in forests and on waste lands; took them decades to come up to the level from where they were uprooted. Many did gain in the process; the landless labourers became land holders.

Unity compromise formula between Hindu and Muslim signed by Lok Manya Tilak and Muhmmad Ali Jinnah as Lucknow Pact in 1916 being president of Congress and Muslim League respectively, accepted the principles of separate electorate and quantum of representation for Muslims. Jinnah was a member of Congress too as membership of multi organisations was not an important issue those days. Jinnah left Congress in 1920 when his proposal of use of "constitutional means for self government" was overpowered by Gandhi's " satyagraha, non cooperation movement". A great surprise of the history that Gandhi favoured Khilafat (religious) movement and Jinnah opposed It.

Meanwhile, Jinnah was busy with his 24 years younger to him wife Ratan(Mariam) (d/o Sir Dinshaw Patit), and a daughter Dina, born on 15/8/19; spent more than a decade practicing Law mostly in England.

There were many who were in demand of separate State for Muslims but the major can be listed as Muhmmad Iqbal, Chaudhary Rehmat Ali, Husain Saheed Suhrawardy, Liakat Ali Khan and the Chief Muhmmad Ali Jinnah.

Sir Muhammad (Allama) Iqbal (Kashmiri), Poet of the East, Muslim Philosopher, politician; and writer of song "सारेजहाँसेअच्छा, हिन्दुस्ताॅं हमारा" in 1905 when he was 28 years old; a grandson of a Kashmiri Pandit; became an advocate of separate Muslim State in Northwest India for Muslims to protect their culture and customs. He was major force convincing Jinnah to return India from exile in London and to take over charge of ML. Allama Iqbal, after giving great literature to the world and to Muslims, died on 21/4/1938 at 60 Y age, therefore, cannot be held responsible for massacre and uprooting of people in 1947. Government of Pakistan declared him "National Poet" and named many universities, buildings, roads, parks, etc., after him. He preferred Dari (Persian) to Urdu in his poetry.

Chaudhary Rehmat Ali (Gujjar Punjabi), an author of famous pamphlet of 28/1/1933, "Now or Never; Are We to Live or Perish Forever?"; the advocate of Separate Muslim State for Northwest Muslims and was a founder of name Pakstan [Punjab, Afghan Province (NWFP), Kashmir, Sindh and Balochistan). He offered names Banglistan for Bangal Muslims and Osmanistan for Muslims in South India. He lived most of his life in England. He returned to Pakistan in April 1948 and voiced his dissatisfaction with creation of smaller Pakistan. He was ordered to leave the country by the then PM, Liaquat Ali Khan. His belongings were confiscated, and he left empty handed for England in October 1948, and died on 12/2/1951, at Cambridge, UK.

Husain Saheed Suhrawardy (Bengoli), started his political career in Swaraj Party with Chitranjan Das landed in Muslim League in 1930. He mooted United Bengal proposal with Sharat Chandra Bose. Prime Minister of Bengal in British India, the major implementer of "Direct Action Day, 16/8/46", and was responsible for communal riots killing thousands Hindus in Bengal, was one of the culprits putting the nation on "civil war status", that finally compelled Congress to agree on partition of India. He became the fifth PM of Pakistan in 1956 and in one year before resignation, successfully achieved objectives of: promulgation of Constitution, rebuilding military with the help of USA, pro west foreign policy, establishment of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission to address power supply crisis in West Pakistan. His economic policy suspending National Finance Commission Programme and extending more help to East Pakistan finally ended with his resignation, losing confidence of the parliament. He died in Lebanon in 1963 due to cardiac arrest.

Liaquat Ali Khan (Punjabi), one of the founding fathers of Pakistan, the left hand of Jinnah was a major player of the partition. When Nehru offered five berths to Muslim League in the interim government of British India Empire, presuming that ML may not join, Liaquat Ali Khan joined the Government along with four other ML representatives. He being the Finance Minister became a major road blocker of government's smooth functioning. It was because of him locking the functions of the government, VP Menon and the ICS officers in Delhi were able to convince Sardar Patel and Nehru to accept the proposal of partition. After formation of Pakistan, Liaquat Ali Khan became the first PM of Pakistan, and said to have uttering bad words for Jinnah in his last days. Liaquat Ali Khan was assassinated at a political rally at "Company Garden" in Ravalpindi on 16/10/1951. The hired Afghan assassin was shot on the spot by the police and the motive of assassination was never been fully revealed.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Gujarati), the winner of the partition game, a grandson of a Gujarati Hindu Lohana, married a Parasi, had a habit of smoking cigars, drinking wine, eating pork (all against Islam code of conduct) and mixing his Shia and Sunni faith in Islam was accepted as a Leader of the movement demanding separate nation based on Islam Religion ! The reasons might be Jinnah's capabilities of game fixing with British and arguing with Congress on partition. He hit winning goal (bloodshed) against the strong team of Congress with the most popular Goal Keeper Mahatma Gandhi. Jinnah was suffering from tuberculosis. He wished to live in Mumbai, but partition placed him in Karachi and was moved to Quetta in his last days. When his health was completely deteriorated in Quetta due to tuberculosis, lungs cancer and pneumonia, he was shifted to Karachi by air on stretcher wearing 3 pieces suit on 11/9/48. His Limousine car was waiting at Karachi airport, but he was on stretcher therefore, transferred to ambulance. The ambulance broke down on road to city was replaced after an hour. It took two hours to reach to the Government House Karachi from the airport. 71 years old Jinnah died at 10.20 PM, same day. His life started from Karachi on 25/12/1876, ended in Karachi on 11/9/1948.

Nehru stated upon Jinnah's death, "How shall we judge him? I have been very angry with him often during the past years. But now there is no bitterness in my thought of him, only a great sadness for all that has been ... he succeeded in his quest and gained his objective, but at what a cost and with what a difference from what he had imagined."

Two Gujaratis Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (of Porbandar) and Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Muhammad Jinabhai Punjabhai Thakkar) (origin of Paneli, 50 Kms from Porbandar) met a tragic end of their life but became "Father of the Nation" for India and Pakistan respectively. Their photos are displayed in all government offices and many roads, buildings and programmes are named after them.

होनी होकर रही ।

Let three of us (India, Pakistan and Bangladesh) live in harmony and rethink of "A Union of Hindustan" with free trade, common currency, cultural unity, allowing more marriages across, free movement of people, mutual trust and lowering defence budget. Thereafter no fight remains for Kashmir - Cricks - Picks.

Is this possible?

1 December 2013


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