Saturday, August 29, 2015

Unpleasant transfer can change the History

Unpleasant transfer can change the History

World wonder Tajmahal was built in the memory of Mumtaz Mahal, the beautiful wife of Badshah Shahjahan. When Shahjahan was the Governor of Gujarat, she conceived a baby in Ahmedabad. When Emperor Jahangir was returning from a tour to Ahmedabad (due to dusty wind of summer he named it Gardabad), she joined the family. But on way to Delhi, Mumtaz was dropped at Dahod, where she delivered a baby boy (6th child, 3rd Son) on 14/10/1618, who became the 6th Emperor of India, ruled the country for 49 years, the highest tenure in the Mugal Empire. Yes, the baby born in Dahod was Abdul Muzaffar Muhi-ud-Din Mohammad Aurangzeb.

Like his father, he was also a Governor of Gujarat. It was a prestigious posting, as Gujarat was a surplus state in terms of revenue. But due to differences with his father, he was transferred as Governor of Balkh, Multan and then to Deccan in a revenue deficit States, always dependent on assistance from Malwa and Gujarat. His transfers to unpleasant posts was the burning point of his unrest against Shahnahan. As the eldest brother Dara Shikoh was near to Shahjahan, he had doubts on him for his frequent  shifting.

When his sister Jahan Ara was burned (1644) due to her perfumed clothes picked up fire of a lamp in Agra Palace; and when all relatives, Kings, Governors, etc were visiting Agra Palace to see her, Aurangzeb came after 3 weeks and entered interior palace in military attire. He was dismissed from his position of Viceroy of Deccan and was banned from the court for 7 months. Later was posted as Governor of Gujarat but in a short tenure, was transferred to Balkh (1647), replacing Murad Baksh. Thereafter he was appointed as Governor of Multan and Sindh and then became Viceroy of Deccan.

All four brothers were Governors/Viceroy of the States/Regions and were administratively competent. When Shahjahan became ill (suffering from painful frequent urination) and there was rumour of his death (1657), Shah Shuja (2nd Son) declared himself independent ruler of Bengal. He was defeated by Dara. Shah Shuja fled to Arakan (Myanmar) and was killed by local rulers. But in a strategic mistake of sending the army to chase Shag Shuja towards Bihar, Dara Shikoh couldn't face the combined army of his younger brothers Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh. Dara was defeated and fled towards Punjab. Shahjahan was arrested kept under house arrest at Agra. In a battle of Samugarh, Dara Shikoh was defeated again by Aurangzeb. He was arrested and executed (30/8/1659) in front of his son. India lost the opportunity of getting second liberal Mughal like Akbar. Instead of sharing power, younger Murad was executed (4/12/1661) for the murder of the Divan of Gujarat. Finally, Aurangzeb, a baby born in Dahod (Gujarat), became the Emperor of the Country (13/6/1659).

He was a conservative Musalman, compiled hanafi law, part of manuscript of Holy Quran wrote in his own hand, was making and selling caps for his livelihood expenses. He banned alcoholism, gambling, music, narcotics, etc. But his acts of destroying Hindu temples,  cruelty and injustice against the majority population of the Country, made him the most unpleasant Badshah of the Country. Chatrapati Shivaji took a lead of the revolt and established a Maratha Kingdom at Raigarh (1674), after fighting guerilla wars against the mighty Mughalas. However, after the death of Shivaji (1680), his son Shambhaji was put on trial and executed (1688) by Auranzeb and his remains were fed to dogs.

Textiles Industry emerged big during his tenure with varieties: Brocade, Paithani, Mushru, Kalamkari, Kani Shawl, etc.

He had the longest tenure (49Y) as Emperor, but Deccan kept him busy (25Y) in dealing with the revolts and unrest. He died 20/2/1707 and buried in Khuldabad. His journey of 88 years of life, started from Dahod (Gujarat) and ended in Aurangabad (Maharashtra), changed the history of India.

Due to over centralization of powers and rebellions, religious intolerance (demolition of temples, execution of Sufi Sarmad Kashani and Shikh Guru Teg Bahadur), policy of forced conversion; his 3.2 million km² empire with 15 crore people was shattered in few decades after his death; and the Mughal power was squeezed to the four walls of the Red Fort. His rule penetrated hatredness amongst religious communities in India. That has finally divided the country in 1947, thousands killed and millions displaced. The hearts of people divided are yet to join.

After ruling the biggest kingdom of the world of those days for 49 years, and before leaving the world he said in February 1707 to his son:

"I come alone and I go as a stranger. I don't know who I am, nor what I have been doing."

29 August 2015

NB: Beware while deciding transfers. Aurangzeb may born.


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