Wednesday, July 8, 2015

Dushkal mai Adhik Maas

Duskal mai Adhik Mass

Lunar month name used to carry the name of Nakshatra on full moon day. But to adjust with Solar calender, the new practice of Adhik Mass and Kshaya mass followed.

The Solar Year is made up of 365.2422 days and the Lunar Year is made up of 354 days. Thus both the Solar and the Lunar years have gaps of 11 days, 1 hour, 31 minutes and 12 seconds. As this gap increases each year, it approximates in three years to one month.

Whenever, during Sun Sankranti (Sun move from one sign to another), there is two shukla pratipada of lunar month, the name of the lunar month remain the same and the first is called Adhik Mass. The lunar calendar adds one extra month (adhik maas) every third year ( every 32 months, 16 days and 8 Ghadis/192 minutes).

But when no shukla pratipada of lunar month comes during Sun Sakranti, (or read two Sakranti in one lunar month), that lunar month is called Kshaya Mass. But during that period, the Adhik Mass come within 5-6 months, one prior and another after. Kshaya mass comes after long intervals.

Due to the calculations of 2 Shukla  Pratipada in 1 Sakranti, the Adhik Maas falls in monsoon months mostly. Between the period of Vikram Samvat 2017 to 2128, the Adhik Mass fall in Chaitra (3), Vaishakh (4), Jayeshtha (10), Ashadh (6), Shravan (8), Bhadrapad (5), Ashwin (5). Kartik and Falgun only once in the century, to adjust with the Kshaya Maas. It falls mostly during monsoon months and it was associated with drought condition, therefore a phrase, (dukal ma adhik maas".  

Punamchand
8 July 2015

[Note: The moon takes about 27.3 days to make one complete orbit around the earth. The earth orbits around the sun once every 365.2422 days (= earth’s orbital speed of 29.79 km per second). The earth and the moon in 27.3 days have moved as a system about 1/12 of the ways around the sun. This means that from one full moon to the next full moon, the moon must travel 2.2 extra days before it appears full. This is due to the curve of the earth’s orbit around the sun. The moon is still making one complete orbit (circle) in 27.3 days. But to line up with the earth and sun to become a full moon again it takes 29.531 days.

29.531 day Lunar months = 354.372 days per lunar year. Thus we arrive at a difference of 10.87 days a year between a lunar year and a solar year of 365.2422 days per year.]

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