Saturday, April 23, 2016

Javaharlal Nehru, the Architect of Modern India

Javaharlal Nehru, the Architect of Modern India
Jawaharlal Nehru was a Hero of India for many years. Out of 4 major giants of Hindustan; Gandhiji was killed on 30/1/48, Sardar Patel died on 15/12/50, and Jinnah died on 11/9/48 in Pakistan. Nehru the youngest of these 4 survived and lead India till his death in office as PM of India until 27/5/64. From 1950 to 1964 he was mostly an unquestioned leader of our country. People voted him to power in 3 consecutive elections of 1951 (364), 1957 (371), and 1962 (361) with 2/3 majority. The second party had less than 30 seats. Gandhiji gave him PM post before independence, people confirmed it after independence.

He was the leader who raised the freedom fight from the level of Dominion Status to Complete Independence. He was an architect of Modern India. His all round actions on political, social and economic fields were giant steps of a man. 

His steps for : 5 years planning; mixed economy; establishment and growth of Public Sector Organisations like ONGC, IOC, Bokaro Rourkela steel plants;  Industry Policy & industrial development, export promotion; establishment of world class institues i. e., IIM, IITs, IISc, ISRO, SAC, BARC, IMA, NIT, AIMS, etc.; construction many multi purpose projects like Bhakra Nangal; generation of hydro electricity power projects; green revolution; R&D; importance of Science & Technology; communications and infrastructure development; community development programmes; Hindu Code Bill, etc. a long list of his achievements.

He kept Pakistan under control for 18 years, swiftly and successfully consolidated Indian power in Kashmir beyond 4 subjects of the agreement of accession;  Foreign Policy of Non Alignment in a cold war era of 2 giants USA and USSR; establishing voice of newly born Free India in a group of 165 nations; etc were noteworthy. Some of you may add into the list.
He might have smoked some cigarettes, drank some wines or wrote platonic love letters to Lady Mountbatten, but he served our mother land for continuous 52 years with his dedication and hard work starting from 1912 (attended INC annual session in Patna) until his death in 1964. He spent many years in jail as a freedom fighter.

His books Discovery of India and Glimpses of World History put him on the line of great writers. One can get some ideas of his greatness while reading these books.

It was a time of building a nation from the ruined ashes of exploited India. It was a time to generate income and resources. He travelled in a Jeep as PM, now PM has expensive Aeroplane. The GDP, wealth, infrastructure, resources, per capita income, HDI, etc, going up day by day. We have come to a stage after walking a long way and with whole hearted efforts of many on a foundation stone laid by Nehru.
Gandhi was a great Moral Leader, Jinnah was a great Pleader, Sardar was a great Executer and Nehru was a great Thinker. They were Visionary Leaders.
We give credits of all good works and achievements of a Government to the PM or CM as a Leader of the Government, but when it comes to Nehru, we transfer the credit points in the account of the Ministers whether unification of India by Sardar or Constitution draft by Dr. Ambedkar.

We saw mistakes in him on Kashmir and China border issues but never looked at the angle of Nehru in it. The way Sardar's or other minister's opinion had great value and now our criticism, the PM in office had his own understandings.

Government of India was run from 15/8/47 to 25/1/50 as per GOI Act 1935, in which Governor General (GG) had wide powers compare to the present days President of India. Kashmir issue was sent to UN after due approval of Cabinet and of the Governor General. Later this was considered a Himalayan Mistake of Nehru.

It was the choice of the heir of Gandhiji and Sardar to live a simple life on Gandhian principles.

All know the story of Harilal (Abdullah) the eledest son of Gandhi. Other 2 Ramlal and Manilal were settled in business in SA. The youngest Devdas married to a daughter of Rajgopalachari continued in public life and his heir now seen in public life as MP or Governor. His nephew Shamaldas Gandhi (son of Laxmidas) lead Aarzee Hakumat freeing Junagadh from Pakistan didn't grew in Saurastra politics. Dhebarbhai became President of INC and CM of Saurastra. Many Gujarati leaders, KM Munshi, Morarji Desai, etc grew in national politics during Nehru era. However, it is to note that Gandhiji acknowledge Nehru as his political heir and successor in 1941.

Sardar's daughter Maniben was also a freedom fighter, lived a simple life following Gandhian principles. She and Indulal Yagnik the leader of Mahagujarat Movement, both dedicated their entire life in the service to the Nation instead of living a married life. Both became MP. Sardar's son Dahyabhai became MP twice in Loksabha and once in Rajyasabha. He passed his life primarily as businessman. It is to note that none of them find a place in Nehru cabinet.

Nehru being in power as PM for 18 years and we have only 3 examples to blame him for favouring relatives.

His sister Vijaya Laxmi Pandit, wife of a Kathiawadi Barrister Ranjit Sitaram Pandit, grew from a legislature of United Province in 1937, became minister 1937-39, 1946-47, entered diplomatic service and rose to the level as first woman President of UN General Assembly. This can be accepted.

RK Nehru, being in ICS officer and in the Goverment of his cousin's can have a merit and lift within establishment.

His relative Lt. Gen BM Kaul, did put Nehru in shame of defeat in Sino Indian war. Nehru paid the price as he didn't come out of the shock till his death. Lt. Gen Kaul grew through hierarchy with soft postings couldn't handle war at the high altitude of over 14000 ft, fell ill, returned and resigned. 12000 Indian Army Javans were fighting against 80000 Chinese Soldiers. It was a fight of infantry only. 1383 Indian Soldiers killed against Chinese 722 in a month long fight 20/10/62 to 21/11/62. Nehru knowing his limitations of strength of Indian army against China, tried to dilute disputes through Panchshil and Hindi Chini Bhai Bhai. McMahon line was under dispute between both the countries because of change of boundaries of Aksai Chin and NEFA under different rules.

Defence Minister VK Krishna Menon the second most powerful man of those days was known for his brilliance and international understandings. His 8 hours long speech defending India's stand on Kashmir in UN on 23/1/57 made him "Kashmir Hero" by the press.

An architect of India's non alignment policy he successfully annexed Goa with India. His military unpreparedness was criticised after loss of Sino-Indian war but later people like R. Venkatraman (Defence Minister, Vice President, President of India) and Chief Justice VRK Iyer and others have seen his vision and foresight in military development for India's rise as a military power. His introduction of merit based method of promotion and extensively restructured military command system lead Gen. Thimayya to resigned. He was not Nehru's relative but was placed on merit. Later he resigned as Defence Minister though protected by Nehru. Nehru missed Sardar the most these days.

After the death of Nehru Pakistan fought a war with India in 1965 and lost after a 5 weeks fight of the largest tank battle. But the misinformation about ammunition being used given to the PM by Gen Chaudhari (Supremo Syndrome) prevented the PM Lal Bahadur Shashri to delay the ceasefire and to defeat Pakistan fully. His dream was full filled by Indira Gandhi in 1971 war.

It is to note that Pakistani Army was commanded by British Gen Sir Douglas Gracey, he refused the order of GG of Pakistan Jinnah to move Pakistani troops to Kashmir in 1947 war. While in Sino-India war, China was in full strength of 80000 soldiers against our 12000. They were on top and we were at bottom. Many died in adverse weather conditions. It was a shameful lost of Aksai Chin. But in war, battels are won by strengths, physical and armaments. We were under developed in defence due to our scarcity of resources and other priorities of building the Nation.

We are questioning him for the growth of his few relatives during his tenure. All grew inside the establishment with some legal base. The wrong should be condemned. We must also look at the growth of relatives of other politicians and Industrialist from 1947 to 2013, either grew inside or outside the establishment, with legitimate or illegitimate benefits derived from the Governments.
Guha write, "[had] Nehru retired in 1958 he would be remembered as not just India's best prime minister but as one of the great statesman of the modern world."

Sun also has Sunspots. He was India's Hero too.

14 Nov 2014

NA: The views are expressed for paying respect to Nehru for his services to India. It has nothing to do with his dynasty.


Post a Comment

Powered by Blogger.