Tuesday, March 24, 2015

Unification of India by British

Unification of India by British

We have always blamed British for their divide and rule policy and reason for division of India at the time of independence.

But when was India united? It was a country of Kings and Sultans. Much before the arrival of British the people were divided through religion. One of the major reasons of Maratha defeat in the 3rd war of Panipat on 17/1/1761 against Ahmed Shah Abdali was the support to Abdali by Rohilla of Doab and Nawab of Awadh Sultan Shuja-Ud-Daulah. Afghan-Rohilla-Nawab, perceived as "army of Islam".

Hindus conquered up to Hindu Kush BC,  but the Northwest border always remained a challenge for India. Whether Kal Yavan during Lord Krishna's time, or Alexander and Greeks, or nomadic warriors (Puranas called them malechchh rule) attacks during dark period of history of 500 years (between fall of Mauryas and rise of Guptas) from central Asia,  the Shakas, the Huns, the Kushanas, the Turks, the Mughals, the Afghans; Indian Northwest border was under attacks of invaders. Many tribes came and merged with locals but Muslim invaders came, established their rule and increased their strength through conversion of religion from backward Hindus. 

Invaders used to come from Northwest and the local Kings used to countered them with only one fighting community 'kshatriya', and lost many times. But when the foreign rulers established their kingdoms and allowed other communities to join their army, their strength of waging wars increased. The rise of Shivaji and Marathas was possible by allowing other communities to wage wars.

When invaders conquering India from Northwest border and wars were mostly fought on physical strengths, British though entered from West (Surat, Gujarat), studied the strengths and weaknesses, moved to East, established their rule over Bengal and slowly and steadily conquered India with better strategies, diplomacy, strength, discipline, law, judiciary and English language. 

With the establishment of British rule, the invaders stopped attacking from the Northwest border. British with the use of Railway, Post and Telegraph, bureaucratic administration, laws, etc, ruled the Country for 190 years with less number of British soldiers and officers. 

Equity was the greatest gift of British to India. Their respect to Law allowed Gandhi to fight freedom struggle. Their love to equity, may be for political reasons to counter Congress, allowed Dr. Ambedkar to raise voice of backwards in the Round Table Conferences in London. 

The nation divided into varnas and castes of unequal first converted and later united with the help of Constitution of India, written mostly on the pattern of British system of Ruling the Nation.

Northwest is a problem border after independence. We had wars with Pakistan and mistrust is not going away. Terrorism is our trouble but still Pakistan became buffer for us from the attacks of Afghan and Turks. 

British United India territory and gave us a country of present size India under one rule with a governing principles of Equity, Rule of Law and Natural Justice! But are the rulers and people follow the principle of Equity in administration and customs? Lot of introspection still needed after 67 years of Independence. 

24 March 2015

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