Friday, March 26, 2021

Jadejas of Gujarat

Jadejas of Gujarat

Chandra Vanshi (lunar dynasty) Jadeja Rajputs connect themselves with Lord Krishna and Yadukul, the descendants of the third son Chandra/Moon of Sati Ansuya. Many know the story of Sati Ansuya. When India had passed through 11 years of consecutive droughts and when all the vegetation died, all the rivers including river Ganga dried up, she brought rain over India with her yoga power of monogamy. She was a wife of Rishi Atri and made the three Mahadevas (Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh) children when they tried to test the purity of her character. They gave her the boon to take birth through her womb and Dattatreya, Durvasa and Moon were born as her children. Moon’s Son Budh was married to Ila, the daughter of Manu Vaivasvat (Arya Suryavanshi). The first ruler of Yaduvansh was Pururva, the son of Budh-Ila. There was a great love story of Pururva and celestial nymph Urvashi, described very nicely by Mahakavi Kalidas in Vikramorvasiyam. Rishi Vishwamitra/Vishwarath was Yaduvanshi. Yayati the son of Nahush was the first Chakravarti King of India. He married to Devyani (daughter of Shukracharya, a Brahmin) and Sharmishtha (daughter of Vrishparva). Yadu and Turvasu were born from Devyani and Drihu, Arnav and Paurav were born from Sharmishtha. These five were called Panchkrishtay in Rigveda. They were rulers over India.

The dynasty was named after Yadu, the eldest son on Yayati, therefore, they are called Yaduvanshi. They are Yaduvanshi, therefore, are called Yadavas. They are also known as Abhiras/Ahiras. Ayir means cow in Sanskrit. Therefore they were cow herders and and cow protectors too. Yadu was the eldest son of Yayati. Lord Krishna was Yaduvanshi. When Jarasangh, father-in-law of Kansa attacked Krishna to take revenge of the death of Kansa, Krishna with his yadavas moved to the western coast via the route of Karachi and settled around Dwarika/Junagadh. 

Kuru the son of Sudas was from Paurava’s successors. Kauravas and Pandavas were from their dynasty. They were also Chandravanshi. 

Raghukula of Rama was Suryavanshi and Yadukul of Krishna was Chandravanshi. One may find a link in importance of Moon in Islam, as Chandravanshi rule was spread over present Pakistan and upto Gandhar/Kandhar and Afghanistan. There is a story of Kal Yavana war with Lord Krishna. As per one theory Krishna moved to Saurastra-Gujarat from the route of Karachi. The remains of Indus Valley civilisation in Sindh, Kutch, Saurastra, Gujarat and Rajashthan connects these lands under one land mass and suggest to refer the history of them together to understand the movement and migration of people and their rulers all across. There were 566 of 570 Princely States of united India were located on this mass of the lands. The rise of Sindhi, Gujarati and Marvadi as traders, roots in their establishment over this continent with a locational advantage of the coast line of Arabian Sea, facilitated them to trade internationally. 

Medieval Historians link Jadejas with Sindh Pakistan. There were two famous tribes: Sammas and Soomaras. Under the pressure of Islam those Sammas who didn’t change their faith moved towards east and settled in Saurastra. There was another clan called Chuda in Saurastra. With the marriage of Chuda and Samma, they were called Chudasama. Ra’ Navghan of Junagadh was Chudasama, had defeated Hamir Soomara of Sindh when he tried to forcibly capture Jahal (married and living in Sindh) a daughter of Devayat Bodar between 1025-1044. Child Navghan was rescued and raised in secrecy by Devayat when Navaghana’s father Dyas was defeated by Solanki King of Patan. With that relation, Jahal was his sister. 

Chudasama are an offshoot of the Samma tribe, probably of Turk origin who entered India during the seventh or eighth century and are found in Kachchh, Junagadh and Jamnagar districts. Some historian link them with Abhira (Ahir) Kshtriya of Indo-Aryan origin. 

Sindh was under the rule of Soomaras Hindu in 10th-11th centuries. Later they changed their faith and became Muslims. The Sammas Hindus who didn’t wish to change faith moved to east in Saurastra and but those changed the faith and became Muslim Rajputs had overthrown the Soomaras in 1335. 

There are difference of opinion on term Rajputs and Kshatriyas. Kshtriya is one of the varnas of Hindu varna system who were responsible for the protection of Hindus. Rajputs are linked with the sons of the rulers. The ruler need not be a Kshtriya. Therefore, anybody who wins kingdom or rule over some area were identified as Rajputs. 

In the medieval history, Lakho Jadani of Samma tribe of Sindh, adopted son of Jam Jada, founded the Kingdom of Eastern Kutch in 1147 AD. His twin brother was Lakhiar, therefore, he named his capital Lakhiarviro (near Nakhtrana, Kutch Capital 1147-1548) and ruled the State for 28 years. Prior to him Kutch was ruled by Chawda dynasty. Lakho was succeeded by his son Raydhan Ratto. After his death the territory was divided amongst his four sons. But finally ended up into two groups and their rivalry: descendants of eldest Othaji’s of Lakhiarviro and descendants of the youngest Gajanji of Bara. 

There was a rule of Mahmud Begado (1458-1511) over Gujarat. Junagadh and Pavagadh were powerful kingdoms under Chudasamas and Chauhans respectively. In winning Junagadh by Begado in 1472-73, he had played important role. To save life, Chudasama King of Junagadh Ra’Mandalik-III embraced Islam.... Pavagadh was more difficult to win as the Ravals (khichi Chauhan) of Pavagadh were getting support from Malava-Mandu. Lakhaji of Bara played an important role in winning Pavagadh as a general of Begada’s army in 1479. But when he was returning, he was murdered within the territory of Lakhiaviro by Deda (clan) Tamiachi upon instigation of Hamirji. 

The murder of Lakhaji planted seeds of enmity. Lakhaji of Bara was succeeded by his son Jam Rawal in 1524. In revenge of his father’s murder, Jam Rawal of Bara killed Hamirji of Lakhiarviro. Jam Rawal then ruled the whole of Kutch for two decades (1524-1548). Khengarji-I, the son of Hamirji escaped the massacre and grew up in Ahmedabad under Mahmud Begada and was given fiefdom of Morabi by Begada in 1538. Later waged war with Jam Raval for 11 years with the help of armies provided by Begada and Mughals and reconquered Kutch and ascended the throne of Rapar in 1548 (later moved the capital to Bhuj), Jam Rawal escaped from Kutch and moved to Nawanagar (Jamnagar) which was founded by him in 1540. His descendants then ruled over Rajkot, Morabi, Virpur, Gondal, Dhrol. 

It is to note that the life of Ahmedabad Sultan Mahmud Begado was saved from lion by the Kutch King Khengarji-I in 1546 but his descendants surrendered the life of Muzaffar-III (descendant of Begado) to Mughals in 1582 by Bharmalji-I. Kutch Army under Deshalji-I defeated Mughals in 1719 when the Mughals attacked over Kutch.

United Kutch remained thereafter with descendants of Khengarji-1. After the demise of Raydhan-II, as his eldest son Ravalji was murdered by Sodha Rajputs and second son died at early age, the throne went to the third son Pragji. Whose descendants then rule the state till the accession to India. Kanoji, the son of Ravalji who had legal claim over the throne of Kutch escaped from Kutch and established at Morabi. He tried to regain throne of Kutch but failed and his descendants were settled in Morabi and were called Kaynani. 

Kutch was ruled by Samma Jadeja clan of Sindh from 1147 to 1948 till it acceded to India. They were entitled for 17 gun salute by the British authorities. The title of the ruler Jam was changed Maharao by British in 1918. They are called Jadeja because they are descendants of the first ruler of Kutch, Jam Jada. 

2 May 2019


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