Friday, March 26, 2021

Four great men, seven sisters and seven members changed the fate of China

Four great men, Three Sisters and Seven Members changed the fate of China

China was ruled by Emperors (Huangdi) of Qin, Han, Tang, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties for 2133 years (221BC to 1912) under the Mandate of Heaven. 90% of the Chinese population belong to Han ethnicity, therefore, most emperors were from Han ethnicity except few nomads from Eurasian steppe.

For the Son of the Heaven, service to the people was an important criteria for the emperor to continue. If there was natural disasters of floods or famine the rebellion against the emperor was justified. Performing imperial sacrifice to heaven annually for rain and prosperity was the tradition. Son of Great Mongol Genghis Khan, Qgedei Khan conquered Northern China in 1234. His nephew Kublai Khan (founder of Yuan Dynasty) was an important ruler (1260-1294), had claimed Mandate of Heaven in 1272. He initiated organised administration and planned growth of Yuan China. Venetian Merchant Marco Polo visited China during his rule. The last emperor of Qing Dynasty Puyi was a child of 6 years, when he was overthrown on 12/2/1912 after the Xinhai Revolution.

Foot binding (lotus feet) was a custom of applying tight binding to the feet of young girls to modify the shape and size of their feet, possibly originated among upper class court dancers as mark of beauty, eventually spread to all classes by 19th Century. To stop the wives from deserting them, insecure males, more amongst upper classes, imposed the painful practice of creating disability and limiting the mobility of women. Reformers of 20th Century including Sun Yat-Sen launched campaign against the practice. They not only opened the feet of the women of China but opened the doors of their development by promoting education and their exposure to the world.

Four men changed the life and history of Chinese. Sun Yat-sen, the father of new China, played instrumental role in overthrowing the Qing dynasty during Xinhai Revolution and had established Repubic of China in 1912 and created his political philosophy of three principles of the people : nationalism, democracy and welfare.

Three ‘Soong Sisters’ were along with their husbands were very important political figures in China. They influence their husbands and played major role in changing the history of China. The eldest Soong Ching Ling loved ‘Money’, and married to China’s richest man and FM HH Kung. The middle Soong Ali Ling loved ‘Country’ and married to the father of modern China Sun-Yat-Sen. The youngest sister Soong May Ling loved ‘Power’ and married Commander in Chief and President of China, Chang Kai Shek. Sun-Yat-Sen had communist idea and wanted to cooperate with Russia but Chang Kai Shek and his wife preferred America. After the death of  Sun Yat Sen the National Party was divided and his wife Soong Ali Ling became the Chairperson of the split group and later became Joint Vice President of the People’s Republic of China.

After the death of Sun-Yat-Sen, Chiang Kai Shek the Commander in Chief of the Army married to the sister in law of Sun Yat Sen and became leader of the KMT (Kuomintang-Chines Nationalist Party) and became the Chairman of the National Goverment of the Republic of China. When he became weak after the Sino-Japan was of WW-II, losing his great generals and soldiers in the war, had lost the civil war of 1945-49 against the Chinese Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army of Mao Zedong. Mao became the founding father of people’s republic of China in 1949 and ruled it from 1949 till his death in 1976 following Maoism. China became single party State controlled by the CPC. He had introduced land reforms, Great Leap Forward (1957-60) transforming Chinese economy from agrarian to industrial, initiated cultural revolution (1966-76) marked by violent class struggle and widespread destruction of cultural artifacts. He welcomed US president in China in 1972 and signalled opening of China to the world. He gets 70% positive score for his revolutionised works but loses 30% for his actions including closing down of educational institutions for four years (1966-70) to bring cultural reforms during the last decade of his rule.

Deng Xiaoping (1978-89), the  paramount leader and designer of Modern China after Mao, who changed China with policy ”reform and open to the world” in 1978. He opened China for foreign investments and the global market. China though under the rule of one party (Communists), opened up for the world and became the country of fastest growing economy raised standard of living of millions. China still in era of Deng Xiaoping.

Xi Jinping (2012 to continued), one of the most powerful leaders of Modern China, the General Secretary of CPC and President of the People’s Republic of China is the Core Leader, with his anti corruption campaign to root out tigers and flies, introduced legal reforms, economic policy of market forces, Internet sovereignty, assertive foreign policy, visionary national project “one belt one road” is leading China to make it powerful again like the ancient time. He coined ‘Chinese Dream’, governance of China through Socialism with Chinese Characteristics, understood the aspirations of the average person, remarked, "Our people ... expect better education, more stable jobs, better income, more reliable social security, medical care of a higher standard, more comfortable living conditions, and a more beautiful environment." With increasing population of aged, he abolished China’s one child policy and shifted to two child policy. Political observers have called Xi the most powerful Chinese leader since Mao Zedong, especially since the ending of presidential two-term limits in 2018. He propagates partnership of friendship, respecting each other’s sovereignty with win win cooperation to create a big family of harmonious coexistence.

China is under one party rule and there are 8.9 million members in communists party who grew in the party cadre and manning the positions of political executives. New member of the Communist Party can be enrolled through the recommendation of important leader. There is registration and renewal fees for the member. There is bureaucracy of management and technical cadres similar to other nations, executes the policies and programmes of the national and provincial governments. However, at the top, 7 members of the Standing Committee command the country.

As soon as the leaders are leading the county towards growth, people of China are not bothered about democracy of multiple parties contests. They had been ruled by the Emperors for more than 2000 years, therefore, they are not worried for the power circle at the top. If there are elections, the present premier may get 80% votes. For them, education, health, housing, employment, safety, security, growth, quality and ease of life are more important than the politics of power. They are more focus on development. No elections, no expenditure on elections, and no standstill of administration following the code of conduct.

Though, the History of China in last one Century has been written by the three Soong Sisters, Four Great Men, and has been influenced by the Seven Members of the Standing Committee; the common man is in happiness living better quality of life. However, there is economic disparity. East China is developed area, such as Shanghai, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, where people earns about RMB 10000/month, but northwest and southwest and some northeast areas are still in developing stage where the annual average income is very low, around 2000-3000 RMB/month. But even though, most Chinese people have still no problem to afford non veg meal. They choose to eat veg more than non-veg because of the dietary habit, as they believe in balanced diet is better for health. Better quality of life is their mission under the one party rule.

27 June 2019


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